Blogs | Jan 12, 2021
正如预测的那样，2020年将达到5克击中大standards work was suspendedtime. But it got off to a rocky start. Back in January, the semiconductor industry—and the world as a whole—had high hopes for the 5G rollout. Then COVID-19 hit, and two things happened.
First, progress on the rollout stalled as standards work was suspended, which was expected to delay device development. But then, data storage and transmission needs increased exponentially as the world settled into a work-from-home and shelter-in-place culture. Additionally, the race to the 5G rollout became a geopolitical issue.
As a result, technology development is going full steam, and we find the industry in transition to catch up to the growing demand for components and subsystems.
The Need for 5G Connectivity
As consumers stream more video, shop online, videoconference, and get used to telemedicine visits with the doctor, our dependence on connectivity is exploding, and 4G/LTE networks can’t keep up. Moreover, the race is on to implement artificial intelligence across a plethora of devices that need 5G connectivity. This is driving the industry to revolutionize broadband services and empower connectivity across end-user verticals.
The Race to the 5G Rollout
On the geopolitical front, the 5G rollout was delayed in Europe and the U.S. However, Korea, China, India and other Asian nations have made significant capital investments in the 5G infrastructure and are actively rolling it out. Saudi Arabia reportedly boasts thefastest download speeds, and South Korea has thehighest rate of adoption。
On the handset side, now that the infrastructures have expanded, Apple finally introduced its 5G iPhone. Across the board, the volumes of 5G handsets sold are increasing.
Technology Trends for 5G Components and Subsystems
Providing end-to-end 5G connectivity requires a network designed to useall spectrums and bands。因此,我们看到incorporati转变ng higher frequency bands while still accommodating other bands (3G, 4G, LTE, etc.) into components and subsystems. This is because mmWave technology, considered to be true 5G, can only travel a short distance. Therefore, its use will be limited to urban areas where femtocells can be placed in close proximity.
RF Filters and Power Amplifiers
For example, RF filters must have improved filtering performance through lower losses and steeper frequency cut-offs. In addition, filters must be designed for higher frequencies associated with 5G, and exhibit performance stability under a wide range of temperatures and environmental conditions. This ensures that the guard bands between useable frequencies, as well as the duplexer gap (the transition space between transmitted and received frequencies) can be minimized.
Changing the Processes
These technology macrotrends are impacting the device manufacturing process in several ways. Overall, manufacturers need to accommodate GaAs and GaN substrate materials. Doping the materials is needed to prevent insertion lost. Manufacturers also need to adjust processes to accommodate for a reduction in material resistance. Lastly, thinner layer deposition is needed to enable higher frequencies.
Process Tool Adjustments
Accommodating the process changes for manufacturing RF devices and power amplifiers for 5G applications calls for tools that are up to the challenge. They must handle multiple wafer sizes, from 6 to 8 inches. Achieving steep cutoffs in RF filters means improved etch-quality profile and uniformity. Thinner layers call for improved deposition, as well as pinhole free, ultra-thin passivation layers. Additionally, run-to-run repeatability is essential to meet high productivity at a low cost of ownership, as well as to meet volume requirements.
Veeco offers a breadth of process technologies to support the full spectrum of device manufacturing needs, including wet processes, lithography, ion beam etch (IBE), atomic layer deposition (ALD) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). This suite of process tool solutions provides high performance at low cost of ownership to build devices that go into consumer products. All systems support flexible wafer size systems and achieve uniform thickness with precision.
Of all the tools in Veeco’s lineup, Veeco’sWaferstorm.®是RF器件工艺的湿法处理应用的Workhorse，包括金属剥离（MLO）和光致抗蚀剂（PR）条应用。MLO对于RF过滤器制造至关重要，作为蚀刻工艺的经济有效替代，可以损坏底层基材。Waferstorm的专有两步方法包括浸入步骤，然后是高压喷雾，在Pr厚度且难以去除的高压喷雾。此外，它使用比传统的批处理过程更少的五倍化学，而倍增吞吐量与传统的单晶片方法一起。腔室是可堆叠的，以适应紧凑的占地面积，同时仍然需要高批量需求。
Atomic Layer Deposition
由于RF器件的材料集需要使用诸如LNO和LTO的复合压电材料，原子层沉积（ALD）通过其应用作为封装和阻挡膜来提供高稳定性过滤器性能的方法。ALD薄膜的共形和致密性质提供了优异的环境劣化保护，从而确保了装置的稳定运行。雷竞技官方网址VeecoFirebird™ system utilizes a unique handling architecture in combination with controlled environment load locks to realize breakage-free movement of wafers within the system. Additionally, multi-batch operation employing Firebird’s intelligent scheduler enables superior throughput and process consistency, resulting in high-performance RF devices.
Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition
5G手机的功率放大器（PA）需要高线性，效率高，可靠性高。这种装置的关键推动器从外延层开始，由具有均匀掺杂和组成的尖锐界面组成。MOCVD是手机PAS基于GAAS的晶体管的大批量生产的沉积技术，因为它能够在大规模生产吞吐量下具有高均匀性的材料来提供最低的所有权成本。雷竞技官方网址VeecoLumina® is specifically designed to meet the industry’s latest epitaxial growth requirements and has been proven to provide extremely sharp interfaces with no memory effect, and uniform film layers (within wafer, wafer-to-wafer, and run-to-run). Coupled with a fast wafer transfer system, high growth rates, fast temperature ramping and high uptime, Lumina provides the industry’s highest throughput for wafer sizes from 2 to 8 inches.
Power amplifiers for base stations require high power and high frequency performance to allow fast data transmission needed for 5G network. Current technology for sub 6Hz base stations utilize GaN HEMT on SiC to meet this requirement. However, as 5G progresses to mmWave base stations, high power microcells with multiple distributed antennas and small cells system will be needed to enable the fast data rate transmission. The high volume requirements mean growth on larger wafers size such as 8” and 12” silicon wafers to lower the cost of devices for large scale adoption. Veeco’s推进™ HVM systems with single wafer TurboDisc® technology and cassette to cassette automation has demonstrated high performance in uniformity and repeatability with the lowest cost of ownership. The cluster system design provides flexibility and productivity and it is the only GaN MOCVD platform currently in the industry that is proven successful to scale to 12” silicon substrate and ready for high volume manufacturing.